What’s Old is New Again

Read the article from the Iowa Soybean Association below from January 2016.  Our article starts on page 30!

 

Whole Farm Conservation

September 1, 2015
By LARRY KERSHNER – Farm News news editor ([email protected]) , Farm News

[email protected]

MINBURN – If farmers are going to meet the requirements of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy, it’s going to take more than one type of conservation farming method.

That’s the message that Liz Juchens, of Iowa Learning Farms, hoped that a dozen farmers took home with them Aug. 5 from the Craig Fleishman Century Farm in Minburn.

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Fleishman hosted a whole-farm conservation field day sponsored by Iowa Learning Farms.

Fleishman called himself Mr. Stacking Guy, because he stacks his field management practices.

Juchens said Fleishman employs a suite of conservation practices – ridge till, extended crop rotations, corn and soybeans planted side-by-side in 12-row strips, and cover crops.

Fleishman said 2015 has been a tough growing season with Story County measuring 21 inches of rain so far this season, about 7 inches in July alone.

Oats, which are his third rotation crop, are more of a challenge than he expected.

“It’s been so long since oats have been grown on this farm,” he said, “we’re learning to do it all over again.”

The small grain did not want to ripen evenly this year, he said, plus with repeated rain storms up until Aug. 5 he finally cut and swathed his oats the previous day, about three weeks behind the rest of Iowa.

He said he’ll sell the oats to a neighbor as cover crop seed and he’s considering selling some of the straw to another neighbor, “although taking the straw off is kind of defeating the purpose,” he said.

Having oats as a third rotation, Fleishman said, is to get a diverse mix of root masses in the soil and for erosion control during fall and spring rains, when there is no commodity crop standing out there.

Fleishman said he’s been ridge-tilling since 1981.

“It’s the forerunner of strip-till,” he said, “only it’s cheaper and I like the raised seed bed.”

He said he’d ideally like to work with a six-row planter, but it’s time-consuming when one has many acres to plant.

He plants his corn, soybean and oat fields in alternating 12-row strips.

“Primarily,” Fleishman said, “the strips are for conservation, slowing water moving across the top and slowing the cutting of ephemeral gullies.

“But the strips also provide a yield bump for the corn, because there are more outside rows.”

In fact, walking in the field, Rick Cruse, an Iowa State University field agronomist, said that the plants in many of the outside rows were producing two ears.

Fleishman usually drills 2 pounds of cover crop seeds per acre a few weeks before harvesting corn and soybean fields.

Due to the uncertainty of the weather patterns this season, he said he’ll try seeding from the air for the first time.

“I think it’ll turn out that drilling is better,” he said, “but sometimes nature just won’t allow it.”

Erosion notes

Cruse bluntly told farmers that if they follow acceptable erosion levels allowed by federal Natural Resources and Conservation Service guidelines, they will lose more soil than can be regenerated.

He said NRCS finds less than 5 tons of erosion per year is acceptable, however, a field can only regenerate about a half-ton of soil each year.

“And NRCS only measures sheet and rill erosion,” Cruse said. “But 35 to 40 percent of all erosion goes out by ephemeral gullies..”

Sheet erosion is the movement of soil across the surface plane of the field, mostly caused by raindrop splash and shallow flows of water across the surface. Wind can also cause sheet erosion.

Rill erosion occurs when runoff water forms small channels as it concentrates down a slope. They can be any size, but usually about 4 inches deep.

Ephemeral gullies are larger than a rill and usually results from the junction of rills. They appear on a cultivated field during planting and the growing season and erased by cultivation. After an ephemeral gully has been in existence for a few years, the area from which soil has been moved can be 100 feet wide or more.

Tillage moves soil into the ephemeral gully. This loose material is readily available for transport by runoff from the next rain, Cruse said.

He added that NRCS standards measure sheet and rill erosion, but have no calculation for ephemeral gullies.

So a grower can be in federal compliance as for sheet and rill erosion, but still lose additional soil through gullies, for which NRCS has no formula for determining the amount f soil loss.

According to NRCS estimates, as a state Iowa loses an average of 5.4 tons of soil per acre annually.

Cruse said ISU research has determined that cover crops can reduce erosion by 20 to 22 percent, but the best method is to take those areas of ephemeral gullies out of production and into grassed waterways.

– See more at: http://www.farm-news.com/page/content.detail/id/521449/Whole-farm-conservation.html?nav=5005#sthash.pZVdyQhb.dpuf

Demonstrating Ridge-Tillage and Cover Crops

Read Craig’s feature from the September 2012 issue of Wallaces Farmer:

Fleishman combats weed resistance with ridge-till in Dallas County

Iowa Learning Farms partner Craig Fleishman farms near Minburn in Dallas County, Iowa, where he grows corn and soybean using primarily ridge-tillage management. Farmers, like Fleishman, who are using ridge-till on their fields plant into elevated field-length ridges that remain in place year-to-year. Ridge-till planters push soil from ridge tops into the row middles. In June, ridges are re-established and weed seedlings are buried with a between-row ridge cultivator.

Fleishman has partnered with Iowa Learning Farms (ILF) since 2009, demonstrating ridge-tillage and now cover crops, too. ILF works with many farmers across the state who are using conservation farming practices while remaining profitable. Our farmers help ILF by sharing their experiences with others to help build a Culture of Conservation. They host field days, speak at workshops, or chat one-on-one with other farmers who are interested in making changes on their own farms.

Fleishman has used ridge-tillage since 1981 because he prefers planting into the elevated seedbed that the ridge-tiller makes. He also likes the weed suppression and controlled wheel traffic. The economics of ridge-till is a plus as well, as Fleishman’s only tillage pass for seedbed preparation is pulling a 12-row ridge cultivator with a mid-sized tractor.  “I believe soil conservation is being sacrificed to ever-increasing larger equipment,” says Craig. He plants corn and soybean in two or three-year rotations and also maintains some acres in a corn-soybean-oat rotation that includes red clover harvested for hay.

Fleishman uses a coulter applicator to deep-band dry phosphorus and potassium fertilizer into ridges on every acre every year, preferably after harvest in the fall.  Nitrogen is split-applied to corn, with about a third of total N applied with the planter as liquid UAN, and in June the remainder is sidedress-applied as anhydrous ammonia with the ridge cultivator. Fleishman finds that corn-on-corn especially responds to the planter-applied liquid UAN.

Craig believes ridge-till’s combination of chemical and mechanical weed control (between-row cultivation) practices minimizes the risk of glyphosate-resistant weed pressure.  “With the ridge-till system I have multiple modes of action to control weeds,” Fleishman notes.  “There is nothing like a well-adjusted ridge cultivator with disk hillers and 16-inch sweeps for taking out Roundup resistant weeds.”  He has encountered waterhemp weed escapes in his un-cultivated headlands where soybean is planted in 15-inch rows.

Craig has also established fall-seeded cover crops following soybean harvest on his farm. He is participating in the cover crop demonstration group through ILF and Practical Farmers of Iowa.

“Good soil stewardship is good business. It does not make economic sense to let soil erode into ditches and waterways, as this robs the precious soil resource from future generations,” stated Fleishman. “I’m very concerned about the fencerow to fencerow monoculture cropping systems being used today. Our soil resources are really being stretched. I believe past soil conservation practices—or lack thereof—should be reflected in the value of a farm when determining sale value.”

Recently he was recognized for the care he takes on his farm. The Fleishman family was one of 67 Iowa farmers who received the first Iowa Farm Environmental Leader Award presented by Governor Branstad at this year’s Iowa State Fair. The award “seeks to recognize the exemplary voluntary actions of farmers that improve or protect the environment and natural resources of our state while also encouraging other farmers to follow in their footsteps by building success upon success” as stated in the ceremony program.  Craig was one of several ILF farmer partners to receive the award. Their stewardship is what Iowa Learning Farms is all about.

Cardinal Farms Recognized as Environmental Farm Leader

Craig Fleishman farms in rural Minburn, Dallas County, raising corn, soybeans and some oats and hay. He calls his century farm “halfway between conventional and organic.”

Soil conservation has been a passion of his for 40 years when he began managing the family farm. Craig started experimenting with ridge-till in 1981 and began no-tilling in 1985. He also uses strip-cropping and has installed grassed waterways, filter strips, and a wetland.

Craig is a member of the Iowa Soybean and Iowa Corn Growers Associations, Dallas County Farm Bureau, Practical Farmers of Iowa and several conservation societies. He has also worked with Agriculture’s Clean Water Alliance (ACWA), taking water samples in the Des Moines River watershed.

Being a farmer partner with ILF takes Craig back to his childhood when an elementary teacher spoke to the class after a severe dust storm about the dangers and costs of soil erosion. He said that the teacher’s words “stuck with me and I have been interested in conservation since.”

Craig and his wife, Deb, have two daughters. When he isn’t farming, Craig can be found outdoors hiking, biking, canoeing. He also enjoys National Public Radio and Iowa Public Television.

Building a Culture of Conservation: “Soil conservation is extremely important to the security of this nation. We need to learn to grow food without sacrificing our soul resource.”

In 2012, the Fleishman family received the Iowa Farm Environmental Leader award
for their conservation practices in place in their farm.

 

Dynamic Duo

Originally printed in Progressive Farmer by Des Keller

Grower employs ridge-till and multiple modes of action to hedge against resistant weeds.

Craig Fleishman’s central-Iowa farm is always part of an experiment of some sort searching for a balance between the use of “steel and chemicals” as a way to increase prof ts while maintaining the integrity of the soil.

As a third-grader, he remembers a teacher telling the class about the importance of soil conservation on a day following a dust storm in their area near Minburn.

“That stuck with me,” says Fleishman, who has been involved for years with Practical Farmers of Iowa. The group, founded in 1985, is made up of about 1,500 growers and others interested in agriculture. The nonprofit organization’s mission is to advance prof table and ecologically sound agricultural methods through research conducted by its members.

COVER CROP TEST. Fleishman is two-thirds of the way through a three-year study reincorporating a third crop (oats and red clover) into his rotation. He hopes the additions help to supply nutrition to his corn and soybeans while helping to tamp down weed problems.

As a general rule, he has also tried to control weeds in the absence of some glyphosate-resistant crops because all of his soybeans are non-GMO (genetically modif ed organism).

In his region (like many others), waterhemp has become resistant to glyphosate. So have other amaranthus species. The addition of the oats underseeded with clover is partially an attempt to control these and other weeds. “The oats and clover held back the weeds real well,” Fleishman says. “Otherwise, I did a little spot-spraying with Roundup or 2,4-D.”

NOT SURPRISED. Iowa State University Extension weed scientist Mike Owen has been warning about resistance issues since the early 1980s. He began speaking about “evolved resistance to herbicides, and now, 30 years later, I’m still talking about it.

“Initially, the discussion was that because of the way glyphosate functioned in plants, they would never develop resistance,” Owen says. “When glyphosate was used back then as burndown treatment Or in combination with 2,4-D, it was at lower rates.

“When Roundup Ready technology came to be, glyphosate was now being used alone at the highest rates on essentially different weeds than it had been used on historically,” Owen continues. That has greatly spread the evolution of resistance.

RIDGE-TILL BENEFITS. Fleishman believes his ridgetill system (used for both corn and soybeans) is a great benef t. In ridge-till, seeds are planted in slightly raised mounds, or ridges, built by specific tools on a pass through the field. The ridges were particularly helpful in 2012 and last year, as heavy early-season rains delayed planting. Seeds in ridges could be planted somewhat earlier than other systems and stayed drier as moisture drained away from the ridge.

The troughs between the ridges tend to stay wetter, which, in itself, is a deterrent to growth for many weeds. Once into the season, Fleishman can target needed herbicides onto the growing crops on the ridges while using cultivation tools to destroy any weeds gaining traction between the ridges.

“This isn’t organic, and it isn’t no-till,” Fleishman says, “it is a blend of both. I get about a 50% reduction in herbicide use, and, instead of needing two trips over a field to spray glyphosate, I can usually make one pass to cultivate.”

He employs seven modes of action on his corn and soybeans—five that are chemical and two mechanical. In 2013, all of his corn was Roundup Ready with double or Triple traits, while nearly all the soybeans were non-GMO.

Fleishman’s program in 2013 included:

Fields for corn and soybeans were sprayed with a burndown of Roundup and 2,4-D Ester.

While planting corn, he sprayed Lumax EZ with 32% as a carrier in a 10-inch band.

Soybeans received a preemergence application of Gangster and Warrant in a 10-inch band using the planter.

The ridge cleaners on the planter remove 1 to 2 inches of soil—and the weed seeds in that soil—from the top of the ridges. The cleaned area is moist and improves the activity of the preemergence herbicides.

One or two trips with a ridge-till cultivator removes weeds between the rows. He sometimes has to walk beans to cut broadleaf escapes or uses a tractormounted four-seat bean bar to spot-spray Cobra.

Fleishman also works to keep fencerows clean. In particular, giant ragweed and hemp “tend to creep out into the f eld.” He also uses a tractor-mounted fencerow seeder to establish grass in the fencerows.

Fleishman isn’t oblivious to the reasons why ridge-till isn’t more popular in the central and eastern Corn Belt. “It takes more time to work a ridge-till system, and a guy can move faster over more acres in a conventional or strip-till, or no-till system,” he says. Fleishman farms about 650 acres.

“Also, people don’t like to cultivate,” he adds. “Strip-till has become very popular, and you don’t have to cultivate with strip-till.”

ADD ALTERNATIVES. Fleishman has been using some form of ridge-till since 1981. In his area’s heavy black soils, the raised seedbed seemed to make more sense than no-till, and he uses fewer herbicides. Like most ridge-tillers, Fleishman controls the traff c in his fields— they run equipment in the same paths all the time, year to year.

On more than one occasion, both Fleishman and Iowa State’s Owen have spoken at conferences regarding the need for alternative methods for weed management. They aren’t against the use of Roundup Ready technology, just the lack of use of other tactics for weed control.

“If I were king for a day,” Owen says, “I would have adopted the technologies, but I would also make sure there were suff cient alternatives included to minimize the resistance issue.” He says that one recent survey of 550 weed populations collected from around the country found 60% of them tested as having resistance to more than one herbicide.

Says Fleishman: “I don’t think we’ve seen the worst of resistance issues yet. I don’t know if it has sunk into a lot of farmers yet, but they are starting to get the message.”